Neurosurgeons are the specialists that deal with various surgical procedures that have to do with the nervous system which includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and the skull. They provide both surgical and non-surgical treatment to patients who are victims of trauma to the head, with benign or malignant brain tumors and other neurological issues and physiological abnormalities. The surgical techniques neurosurgeons use depend on the diagnosed condition but may range from aggressive surgery to minimally invasive surgical procedure. Brain surgery cases are usually passed on to the neurosurgeons as this falls under their top specialization. Neurosurgeons perform surgery to the brain for many different medical reasons including epilepsy, trauma, vascular malformations and brain tumors.
Endovascular surgery is performed by neurosurgeons on patients who have disorders of the brain’s blood vessels such as arteriovenous malformations or aneurysms. Such lesions can burst and cause bleeding in the brain. This type of brain surgery can treat the lesions on the blood vessels. Endovascular surgery does not require opening and removal of a piece of the skull to access the blood vessels. The neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists collaborate in this type of surgery. The surgeons reach the diseased blood vessels in the brain through the femoral artery in the thigh. Threaded into the lesion are platinum coils which will prevent the blood vessel from bleeding and rupture. However, not all vascular lesions may be treated with endovascular surgery. In those cases, open brain surgery will have to be performed.
Radiosurgery, on the other hand can be used for the treatment of brain disorders using high-dose radiation which can damage the tumor cells as radiation is directed at the abnormal tissue. If the tumor cells are damaged, its growth and reproduction will be stopped. This surgical procedure will cause blood vessels to close off and clot, thus preventing bleeding. Neurosurgeons performing radiosurgery will not cut any skin. The procedure, however, can cause some side effects like swelling and formation of clump of dead cells called necrosis, in which case, necrosis may need to be removed.
Neurosurgeons are more known to perform craniotomy. This surgical procedure involves removing of a portion of the skull, the location of which will depend on the procedure performed. For example, if a neurosurgeon New Orleans performs a surgery at the front of the brain, the surgeon may remove that part of the skull above the eyebrow. Surgeons will map out the brain to mark the different parts of the brain in order to avoid those brain parts that control certain functions will be avoided during craniotomy. In most cases, the neurosurgeons would require the patient to be awake during the procedure to perform the necessary brain tests. tests.
Another type of brain surgery which neurosurgeons perform is endonasal endoscopy. The neurosurgeon collaborates with otolaryngologist in performing the surgery. Tumors are removed through the nose and sinuses without the need to open the skin. The neurosurgeon uses an endoscope with a video camera and a bright light. The surgeon will guide the endoscope through the sinuses and nose to the area in the brain where the tumor is to be removed. The abnormal tissue may be removed or lesions may be repaired using small scissors and forceps inserted through the end of the endoscope. Because this procedure is minimally invasive, recovery time is shorter and has less risk of damage to the brain compared to traditional open surgery.